OkCupid & Match.com: A Branding Strategy
A corporate marketing article by Thunderbird students Noah Emery, Kate Gillette, Megan Groves, Roger Li, Christian Lorentzen, Ullas Rameshappa and Amanda Roberson
Executive Summary: In this paper, we will provide an overview of the existing and growing online dating market as it pertains to the United States. Focusing on two brands, Match.com (Match) and OkCupid, we will explore options for Interactive Corporation, the holding company for both dating sites, to simultaneously grow the online dating market and increase visibility and profitability of newly acquired OkCupid, a much younger brand. After analysis of product, promotion, placement and pricing as well as segmentation, targeting and positioning of each brand, we recommend the following: a dual-branding strategy that capitalizes on Match’s industry experience in order to grow the market and maximize OkCupid’s potential value.
A marketing strategy article by Thunderbird students Noah Emery, Kate Gillette, Megan Groves, Roger Li, Christian Lorentzen, Ullas Rameshappa and Amanda Roberson
Executive Summary: In this paper, we will provide an overview of the existing and growing online dating market as it pertains to the United States. Focusing on two brands, Match.com (Match) and OkCupid, we will explore options for Interactive Corporation, holding company for both dating sites, to simultaneously grow the online dating market and increase visibility and profitability of newly acquired OkCupid, a much younger brand. After analysis of product, promotion, placement and pricing as well as segmentation, targeting and positioning of each brand, we recommend the following: a dual-branding strategy that capitalizes on Match’s industry experience in order to grow the market and maximize OkCupid’s potential value.
The Story: In February 2011, Match.com’s holding company Interactive Corporation (IAC) acquired New York City’s OkCupid for $50 million cash. IAC is “a leading internet company with more than 50 fast-growing, highly-related brands” (IAC website). Match is an industry giant, bringing in $108.3M in revenue during the fourth Quarter of 2010 alone. Using that figure, one could estimate Match's annual revenue to be about $433M. Match also has an impressive 1.789 million paid subscribers equaling $60 per paid subscriber. OkCupid pales in comparison. IAC has yet to report revenues from OkCupid, as the acquisition took place in February of this year and Quarter 1 reports have not yet been released. However, recent media reports quote OkCupid founder Sam Yagan as saying his company cleared six figures, so one could estimate OkCupid's annual revenue to be $1M. With just 7 million active members, OkCupid does not measure up to industry leader Match, but, as the “fastest growing free dating site for singles”(OkCupid website), OkCupid brings much potential value to the IAC family. By leveraging Match’s industry experience, how can IAC best utilize a dual branding strategy to grow OkCupid's awareness and profitability, further distinguishing it from Match, and positioning it to maximize its potential value?
Online Dating Industry: The online dating industry is a segment of the Online Dating and Matchmaking (ODM) industry. This high-growth industry saw 2.6% average annual revenue growth from 2005 to 2010. From 2010 to 2015 the average annual revenue growth rate is predicted to be 3.1%. In 2010, the market size by revenue crossed the $2 billion threshold. Total profits were reported to be $394m. The average industry profit margin (EBIT) is 19.7%. The ODM industry is made up of six sub-segments, of which online dating holds a 54.2% share. The sub-segment breakdown can be seen in appendix 1, however for the purposes of our research we have focused on online dating.
Online dating can be categorized as websites that offer users the opportunity to create individual profiles and search for and connect with other individuals based on shared interests. These websites began by having users browse profiles by physical descriptions (height, weight, body type, etc) and then view the profiles of those that met their criteria search. However, online dating sites become increasingly complex, offering users advanced algorithms that “match” one user to other users’ profiles based on common interests, such as career, romance, hobbies, etc. The advent of mathematical models behind online dating sites has opened new opportunities to create more predictive algorithms that learn users’ personalities and fit them together through a mathematical matching system
The ODM industry is in the growth stage of its lifecycle, which is apparent from rising revenue, growth in the number of competitors, increased employment, and improvements in product and service offerings. Changing the stigma around online dating as something only desperate people do is a constant uphill battle for companies in this industry. A key driver of growth is the shift in societal attitudes about using the Internet as a forum for creating relationships. In 2006, 11% of Internet users had used online dating, and by 2010 that number had increased to 31% - keep in mind the growth of Internet users during this time. In 2010, online dating introductions led to more than twice the number of marriages versus people who met at clubs, bars or other social events combined.
The industry growth is driven by the following five key factors:
1) The primary users of ODM services are ages 18-49 (79% of all users). Based on population trends in the US, this demographic will increase.
2) The current Internet penetration of US households is 75%, and is projected to be 82% by 2015. As a result, more households will be able to access online dating websites.
3) The divorce rate in the US is increasing while the marriage rate is declining. These trends will lead to more single people looking for partners.
4) The disposable per-capital income is expected to increase. This factor will allow users to have more income to spend on membership and other related fees.
5) Increase of mobile phone platforms usage for websites will drive additional adoption and revenue.
Competition in the online dating industry is high and is expected to increase. Though young, in 2010 there were 13,763 organizations in the overall ODM industry. High competition is driven by low barriers to entry and high industry growth potential. The only capital one needs to begin on online dating website is an understanding of web design and a hosted server. The key to creating a successful online dating website is creating an experience that the user feels fits his or her personality, and hence could find a suitable partner on that website. For example, one website caters to sea captains (www.seacaptaindate.com/) while another targets university students (www.dateu.us). Furthermore, additional external competition comes from social networking websites such as Facebook and MySpace.
The Online Dating segment offers two business profitability models. The first is through paid memberships, in which members pay monthly fees to use the website. The second is through Pay- Per-Click advertising promoted on the Online Dating website. Recently, websites have begun using a hybrid model in which a basic user can use the site for free, while paying-subscribers have access to premium features.
The key success factors of a company competing in the online dating industry are:
• Ability to create a website focused on niche markets, such as personality type, interests, religion, etc.
• 24/7 access for users
• Ability to quickly adopt new technology (chat boxes, video conferencing, etc)
• A good reputation spread by viral marketing and word of mouth
• Marketing and advertising campaigns that differentiate and focus on the niche
The top four industry leaders increased their collective market share from 34.4% to 38.9% from 2006 to 2010. InterActiveCorp (IAC) is the industry leader, controlling 18.6% of the industry, and eHarmony.com is the second largest with 12.4% of the market. IAC frequently acquires niche online dating companies once they have proven a sustainable business model. IAC owns over 50 online dating brands includingMatch.com, OKCupid.com, Chemistry.com and SeniorPeopleMeet.com.
Currently, few competitors operate internationally. IAC seems to be an exception, as their brands operate in 30 countries. Emerging technologies such as instant translation and video chat are predicted to allow smaller competitors to bridge this international gap.
OkCupid Overview: OkCupid was launched in 2004 by a group of Harvard math alumni. Using their numerical skills to build their own “customized matching algorithm,” the founders developed a site that promises to link compatible users. New users can join OkCupid for free. To begin finding potential dates, they first answer a series of compatibly questions, which could include, for example, “How messy are you?” with the answer choices “very messy, average or very organized.” Using a Venn diagram, the website explains how this matching system works. The site not only asks for the user’s answer, but also how the user would like someone else to answer and how important the question is to him or her. Using this information, OkCupid’s algorithmic system matches users it calculates to be compatible. Users are free to peruse the compatible people OkCupid presents them and contact them through the site to ask them on a date.
Target: OkCupid targets a younger, hipper and more tech-savvy audience than other online dating sites, which is evident when browsing the site. The company emphasizes its free price point to attract younger users who may not have extra cash to spend on online dating but want to try it nonetheless. One college student told his school’s newspaper, the Hilltop Views, that he had always thought online dating was “kind of weird, like it was only used by creeps,” until OkCupid got his attention. “The main difference between OkCupid and other online dating sites … is the fact that it’s free. I’ve never tried Internet dating before now. I thought it would be fun” (Hilltop Views). Many respondents to our survey echoed this young man’s sentiments about OkCupid. They described the site as a “pretty hip and interesting site to meet people”. A 36-year-old we interviewed who had tried both Match and OkCupid said the mathematical element of OkCupid attracted him. “The notion behind asking people questions about certain topics and comparing it to a normal distribution is actually a much better way of seeing how you may be aligned and compatible rather than just self-populating the answers based on what you think about yourself. I liked the math” (Personal Interview)
OkCupid seeks to differentiate its product from other online dating sites by focusing on two key aspects: its mathematical question-based matching system described above and its free price point (described more in detail below). Additionally, OkCupid is user-driven in the sense that users have the ability to increase their odds of making a good match by answering as many compatibility questions as possible. The more questions they answer, the greater the odds that they will be matched compatibly with other users, the site claims. Users even have the ability to write their own questions if they want to know specific things about their potential dates.
Additionally, OkCupid markets its site as scientific and technologically focused, appealing to those comfortable with math and computers. When perusing the “About Us” page, the founders’ mathematical inclinations become apparent. A large section of the page is devoted to describing the algorithms used to match users, while another page explains the technology behind the site, including detailed information about the hardware, software, servers and developers. OkCupid uses its mathematical and technological nature to appeal to tech-savvy young people, and also to convince users that it works. Essentially, OkCupid claims to make online dating into more of a science than an emotional game. “We don’t claim to evaluate you perfectly, but we do claim to find someone who claims to fulfill your claimed requirements, exactly,” the site says. “It’s extremely accurate, as long as (a) you’re honest and (b) you know what you want” (OkCupid website). Indeed, even the site’s logo promotes its scientific approach. The name OkCupid covers a Bunsen burner with hearts bubbling out of the top. Overall, the site positions itself as an online dating site targeting hip people, tech-savvy people that is better than its competitors because it is free and has the most accurate matching system.
Match.com Overview: “Match has led to more than twice as many dates and twice as many relationships” as the [unidentified] dating site that ranks second among online daters, according to a recent case study commissioned by Match. The brand Match certainly evokes an expression of recognition, positive or negative, among a majority of people. Started in 1995, Match pioneered the online dating industry and made it acceptable, even trendy, to cyberdate. Match is in a unique position with respect to other dating sites; singles want to be part of a community where they feel they have the best chance to find that special someone. Now, with over 29 million members, 1.8 of which are paying subscribers, and over 20,000 singles joining each day, Match is arguably the most recognized online dating service worldwide. In fact, according to our market research, of 75 respondents, 93.2% recognized the Match name. (Refer to Exhibit 1) The company has reach in 24 countries and host sites in 15 different languages.
Target: The idea is simple: “to help singles find the kind of relationship they’re looking for” (Match.com website). Match reaches out to the single community at large targeting more singles in general than a specific sub-group, though 51% of Match users are ages 30-49. The 50+ age bracket is also Match’s fastest growing demographic. Though the company’s mission statement does not target marriage as the user’s end goal, the feel of the website, especially in comparison to OkCupid, is much more serious, traditional and long-term. Match largely measures success on couples that meet on the site and begin a long-term relationship that ends in marriage.
“We don’t try to take the place of nature, we just try to get it going” (Greg Blatt CEO, 2010 interview). Match facilitates romantic opportunities by strategically suggesting a match that singles are likely to find compatible, a person they would otherwise never meet. Match takes the “lottery out of love” (Match.com website). Match uses a personality-based pairing system. When creating a profile, users are prompted to answer a series of character-based questions, such as, “What do you like to do in your free time,” “What types of sports/activities do you enjoy?” or “Tell us about your favorite music, TV shows, foods.” The Match process, less focused on mathematical pairing, gives merit to genuine old fashion matching based on personality compatibility and shared interests.
Though Match does offer a free service where users can create a profile, features are extremely limited. One can assume Match only uses this option as bait to lure interested, but not-fully committed, potentials to the site, in hopes of converting them to online daters. Very quickly it becomes clear that the free option seriously lacks desired features, for example the basic ability to search for singles. In 2010, when asked about the pricing strategy for match.com and the company’s response to the global recession, CEO Greg Blatt responded, “there’s no recession in love”. Match knows that rarely halted is the search for true love and the company is able to capitalize on the opportunity to charge for services. With a 6-month subscription, Match also offers the “match.com guarantee: if you don’t find someone within 6 months, we’ll give you 6 months free”. One could almost assume true love within the year--who would not open their wallet for that?
Match allows the user powerful online search capability in addition to a “Daily 5.” Like the name suggests, users receive a daily email with 5 new singles with whom Match thinks that s/he would be compatible. These two advanced, unique features, which enable users a breadth of access to other singles, set Match apart from the competition.
Price: Price is the main and most obvious distinction between OkCupid and Match.com. Although both sites offer both free and subscription-based services, OkCupid emphasizes its free service and drives users to take advantage of it by providing the site’s core features free of charge. In comparison, Match is primarily a subscription-based site that offers a free, yet limited service, driving users toward the paid option.
OkCupid users have the option of joining the “A List,” which costs $10/month and includes additional benefits such as enhanced match searches that allow users to filter based on criteria they select, such as body type or dating persona. Anonymous browsing, ad-free browsing and additional storage space for messages are a few of the additional features available to A-List members. While appealing, these features are not necessary to access the most important components of OkCupid, the ability to find compatible users and communicate with them.
Match’s free membership includes the ability to create a profile, post photos, conduct searches and find potential matches both by browsing the site and by having matches delivered to their inboxes. However, users of Match’s free service do not enjoy the convenience of being able to send and receive messages with other users. A paid subscription to Match.com gives users the ability to do this, as well as access to other features, such as the ability to see who has viewed their profile and chat via instant messenger. For paying subscribers, Match offers several different payment options, including the “Best Value Plan,” which costs $17.99/month for six months, the Standard plan, which runs $16.99 for six-months and the Standard three-month plan for $19.99/month.
Market research showed an interesting correlation in consumer perception of a free site versus a paid site. Survey responses overwhelmingly confirmed that the consumer sees Match as more serious and geared toward long-term relationship seekers, primarily due to the fact that Match was a fee-based service. Users associate the monthly payment as a way to weed out the casual dater. The small minority of respondents familiar with OkCupid associated the brand with a younger crowd looking for a more casual relationship.
Promotion and Place: While Match and OkCupid distinguish themselves by targeting different segments, their marketing channels are much less distinct. Overlaps in promotion and place highlight the need for greater differentiation between these two companies. If indeed IAC is to capitalize on its dual branding strategy, it should emphasize differentiation and more clearly position the two companies through placement and promotion
Both companies make use of all the major social media marketing channels—Facebook, Twitter, LinkedIn, and blogging—and aside from only a few key distinctions, the content of these channels is nearly identical. Both blogs feature user dating tips, opinion surveys (ie; “what are the most important traits in a partner?”), and success stories, and the Facebook and Twitter marketing platforms follow the same formula. Both companies also use these mediums to gather and harvest user information to more effectively grow the accuracy of their targeting, such as through bit.ly links to track the means by which the user arrived, and deep data and statistical analysis provided through the backend of these platforms. Even a Tweet from Match on April 6, 2011 reinforced similarities between the two entities by saying “Match & OkCupid are just different strokes for different folks. Some people have a profile on both! Are you currently dating?”
Both companies play high on the lifetime value of their customers, constantly feeding them different ways to engage, offering them value on the go and everyplace they want to be. To this end, Match and OkCupid push customized mobile apps through their social media. Interestingly, neither company promotes these apps through its static website, perhaps because there is a greater overlap in people who participate in social media and people who have mobile phones, as this population tends to crave to-the-minute engagement with all things social. One detriment to online dating is that it requires a lot of time to qualify, establish rudimentary conversation, and go out with singles. Given this amount of time and effort, the browsing and getting-to-know-you tasks can be woven into the spare minutes in one’s day with an on-the-go platform.
Another similarity in placement are the two company’s joint venture and affiliate experiences, although Match’s efforts are much more robust. Match has JV relationships with Expedia, Hotwire, Hotels.com, and Ticketmaster, companies centered around events, travel, and leisure, and which are much better enjoyed in good company. OkCupid only announces two JV partners at the moment, perhaps because it’s a younger company and hasn’t established as many of the professional collaborations as Match, but the only two it businesses it co-promotes are Evite and Proust, which also JV with Match.
Match and OKCupid use similar marketing messages that urge the user think of the cost-benefit analysis of not dating or of going out on a single date that could likely flop, say if an individual hasn’t done his or her due diligence by learning about an individual before going out on a date. They refer to the global “singles community,” and make public the annual volume of new user signups, employing the GCCP strategy by playing on the universally shared goal of meeting a partner, and that anyone anywhere can identify with being a single at some point in life.
One core distinction in promotional messaging is that Match success stories usually result in marriage, while OkCupid often marks success by happy dating relationships. The tightly summarized Facebook “About” pages draw this delineation, with the Match claiming it helps redefine “how people meet and fall in love,” while the OkCupid page description says, “we use math to help people get dates.” This marks both a difference in strategy and tone.
Match’s position as an industry leader underscores this as well. A promotional piece from Match’s Facebook page states, “Match.com operates some of the leading subscription-based online dating sites in 24 countries, in 8 languages and spanning five continents, as well as oversees its ongoing investment in the British dating site Meetic. Match also powers online dating on MSN across Asia, Australia, the United States and Latin America.” OkCupid’s response to this is to define itself as the “fastest growing FREE dating site,” highlighting that it competes on a different revenue model.
One promotional tactic that only Match utilizes is offering a guarantee. “Find someone special in 6 months or get 6 months free.” This what-do-you-have-to-lose? strategy, along with website FAQs, which anticipate objections about safety concerns by providing a guide to online dating safety, help ease the user into a paid commitment. OkCupid does not use these practices, perhaps because its revenue model is so different and it does not need to work so hard to rally in paying customers.
Another key distinction can be found in advertising, or lack thereof. Match.com dedicates much of its advertising budget to being in the place its potential users are, while OkCupid boasts that it does not advertise, and the comparatively small revenue it can lap up from its free services may prevent the possibility of paying for advertising anytime soon. Match has published ample commercials on YouTube, where OkCupid has none, and since Yahoo! ditched its personals page, Match.com has been the company to step in as its official dating site. Match’s other primary advertising places include the iTunes App Store, online news sites, beauty, health and lifestyle websites, and even TV adverts. Rather than spending on traditional advertising, OkCupid maximizes the value of the data it collects by publicizing interesting findings on its OkTrends blog, which often garner media attention. For example, a recent announcement published on OkTrends, mentioning that Twitter users are likely to have shorter relationships, was picked up by mainstream media, including Time’s online newsfeed.
Match has also cultivated an extensive affiliate relationship, where OkCupid has not. It owns Chemistry.com’s dating tests, touted to be “the most successful in the industry,” and affiliate businesses can utilize them on their own websites. Match offers its affiliates interactive search boxes and optimized landing pages, customized support, and access to the marketing team who states its strong commitment to help these partners grow. The highly rewarding revenue model for its affiliates is incentivized mass promotion through endorsements, and Match also captures a portion of revenue on the singles who become members, which provides yet another revenue stream. (Refer to Exhibit II to see Match’s affiliate revenues.)
Recommendations: IAC should develop a strategy to put OkCupid on the path to further growth and higher profitability. Currently, Match maintains its position atop the online dating world. However, rather than remaining content with this online dating giant, IAC should leverage both OkCupid and Match to not only increase profits but also expand the online dating market itself. Based on survey results, 60% of respondents currently use, have used or are open to using Match, while this figure falls to 40% when asked about OkCupid. (Refer to Exhibit III.) Our group recognized enormous potential to grow the online dating market, allowing both Match and OkCupid to increase their market share. But this data also shows people are somewhat turned off by OkCupid; we assume largely due to lack of brand awareness. A dual branding strategy would help capture new market while simultaneously growing OkCupid’s brand awareness. However, in order for this strategy to be effective, IAC must differentiate the two brands and position each to reach its optimal target market.
To increase OkCupid’s presence within the market and ultimately increase the number of users we recommend the following:
1. Differentiate OkCupid through emphasis on the mobile app market
As a means to reach their target customers OkCupid should focus more attention on the mobile market. Making their mobile app a central piece of the value to their customers will help them reach their audience of younger, tech savvy, individuals who are interested in making the most connections possible without in-person meetings. They will need to make their mobile app appealing enough that users will not only download but also use it constantly. OkCupid could improve mobile app activity by increased opportunity for user engagement. For example, through app interaction, users could compete to win a date with a celebrity or vote on who should be the next competitors on OkCupid bachelor/bachelorette. These interactive campaigns may fit well into OkCupid's model for earning notoriety through earned media instead of paying for advertising.
2. Form innovative relationships to increase awareness of OkCupid
While 93.2% of our survey respondents answered that they had heard of Match, only 38.4% said they had heard of OkCupid. (Refer to Exhibit I and IV.) This shows a need for IAC to invest in increasing awareness of the OkCupid name. To increase membership and awareness among its target audience, OkCupid can develop partnerships with other media sources that focus on similar market segments, for example, Rolling Stone Magazine or MTV. Offering a free one-month trial of their ‘A-list’ membership with a subscription to a popular magazine will help OkCupid reach an ideal customer that may not be familiar with the brand or would not have previously considered using the site.
3. Increase OkCupid’s focus to reach a larger target audience/Use promotional events to create a buzz around OkCupid
OkCupid may also wish to consider expanding its focus from simply getting people dates to building new friendships. Where Match has focused on creating successful long-term romantic relationships, OkCupid can define itself through creating new friends among individuals or new communities for couples in addition to romantic relationships. Currently among many social media sites the focus is almost solely on building relationships and communicating through the Internet. Dating sites are unique in that they focus on creating an initial introduction that should eventually lead to off line interaction. OkCupid may be able to build its popularity by focusing on becoming the most effective social site at bridging the gap between meeting online and meeting in person. 63% of survey respondents chose their online dating site because a friend recommended it. (Refer to Exhibit V.) If a friend is doing something, having fun and finding what it is s/he is looking for, their opinion is likely to be the strongest factor swaying potential consumers to try online dating.
Through hosting events and meet-ups that are available to users and working in conjunction with local business they may be able to provide users a ‘deal’ usable at a specific location during a specific time. If done effectively, these events could help create the buzz and viral presence that OkCupid has focused on in the past. Events on college campuses, at local restaurants or clubs, or other destinations may begin to change the view that only the desperate use online dating.
4. Creating value-add paid options for OkCupid while maintaining the free-service foundation
Because OkCupid uses an advertising-based model to provide its main source of revenue, the above options to increase its market presence and build its membership would also lead to higher earnings from its advertisers. But these ideas need not be limited to advertising to provide revenue. While charging for use is the most obvious suggestion to increase OkCupid’s revenue, market research confirmed that the transition from free to paid would not be an easy one. 56% of respondents would not continue to use a previously free site if it began charging a subscription fee. (Refer to Exhibit VI.) In addition, OkCupid wants to grow awareness within a specific target group, not change its image; charging for services would stray from the brand’s image. But other options exist. By increasing the mobile app’s value (previously discussed) and it making it an attractive alternative to the website, OkCupid could charge users a small amount for the mobile application..
In looking at creating events OkCupid should also consider the benefit they may be providing to the partner business. A large volume turnout to these events, potentially warrants a commission to OkCupid. What bar wouldn’t want to be packed on a night when they would otherwise have not been busy? This concept, if proven successful, taps a previously unexplored source of revenue for the company.
Users willing to pay for additional value created through offering cafeteria-style new features on the website creates a new revenue stream for OkCupid. Features such as ‘An online match making service’ or a ‘vetting service’ that will provide you with reality ratings for profiles based on user feedback are ideas. These new additions support OkCupid’s core function of building relationships, but also provide the further revenue streams that both OkCupid and their parent company IAC hope to implement.
Conclusion: “As long as human nature exists, the search for love will continue” (Match.com). And as the world moves increasingly online and companies like Match and OkCupid offer convenient dating in an increasingly busy world while continuing to erode the stigma around the online dating trend, industry growth is sure to continue. By implementing some of the suggestions outlined above, we feel that IAC could grow the online dating market while simultaneously maximizing the profitability and market share of both OkCupid and Match.
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I. Have you heard of Match.com?
Answer Options Response Percent
I think so 4.1%
New Subscription Subscription All Affiliates Top Performers
Price Earn 75% Earn 100%
1 month $34.99 $26.24 $34.99
3 month $59.97 $44.98 $59.97
6 month $101.94 $76.46 $101.94
*Affiliate program is for owners of other websites. For every subscription that Match.com receives from this site a commission is paid.
Source: Match.com Case Study
III. Do you use Match to date online?
Answer Options Response Percent Response Count
Heck yes! 2.7% 2
I have in the past. 24.7% 18
Not yet... 32.9% 24
No way! 39.7% 29
Do you use OkCupid to date online?
Answer Options Response Percent Response Count
Heck Yes! 1.4% 1
I have in the past. 13.7% 10
Not yet... 26.0% 19
No way! 58.9% 43
IV. Have you heard of OKCupid?
Answer Options Response Percent Response Count
Yes 38.4% 28
I think so 4.1% 3
No 57.5% 42
VI. Would you continue to use a free online dating site if it began charging monthly membership fees?
Answer Options Response Percent Response Count
Yes 11.0% 8
Maybe 32.9% 24
No 56.2% 41